PMAP(1) User Commands PMAP(1)


NAME


pmap - display information about the address space of a process

SYNOPSIS


/usr/bin/pmap [-rslF] [-A address_range] [pid | core]...


/usr/bin/pmap -L [-rslF] [-A address_range] [pid] ...


/usr/bin/pmap -x [-aslF] [-A address_range] [pid | core]...


/usr/bin/pmap -S [-alF] [-A address_range] [pid | core]...


DESCRIPTION


The pmap utility prints information about the address space of a process.

OPTIONS


The following options are supported:

-a
Prints anonymous and swap reservations for shared
mappings.


-A address_range
Specifies the subrange of address space to display.
address_range is specified in one of the following
forms:

start_addr
A single address limits the output to the segment
(or the page if the -L option is present)
containing that address. If the specified address
corresponds to the starting address of a segment,
the output always includes the whole segment even
when the -L option is specified.


start_addr,
An address followed by comma without the end
address limits the output to all segments (or
pages if the -L option is present) starting from
the one containing the specified address.


start_addr,end_addr
An address range specified by the start address
and end addresses limits the output to all
segments (or pages if the -L option is present)
starting from the segment or page containing the
start address through the segment or page
containing the end address.


,end_addr
An address range started with comma without the
start address limits the output to all segments
(or pages if the -L option is present) starting
from the first one present until the segment (or
page if the -L option is present) containing the
specified address.


-F
Force. Grabs the target process even if another
process has control.

See USAGE.


-l
Shows unresolved dynamic linker map names.


-L
Prints lgroup containing physical memory that backs
virtual memory.


-r
Prints the process's reserved addresses.


-s
Prints HAT page size information.


-S
Displays swap reservation information per mapping.
See USAGE for more information.


-x
Displays additional information per mapping. See
USAGE for more information.


USAGE


The pmap utility prints information about the address space of a process.

Process Mappings

/usr/bin/pmap [ -rslF ] [-A address_range] [ pid | core ] ...


By default, pmap displays all of the mappings in the virtual address
order they are mapped into the process. The mapping size, flags, and
mapped object name are shown.

The -A option can be used to limit the output to a specified address
range. The specified addresses are rounded up or down to a segment
boundary and the output includes the segments bounded by those
addresses.


Process Lgroup Mappings

/usr/bin/pmap -L [ -rslF ] [-A address_range] pid ...


The -L option can be used to determine the lgroup containing the
physical memory backing the specified virtual memory. When used with
the -A option, the specified addresses are rounded up or down to a
page boundary and the output is limited to the page or pages bounded
by those addresses.

This can be used in conjunction with plgrp(1) to discover whether the
home lgroup of a thread of interest is the same as where the memory
is located and whether there should be memory locality for the
thread. The lgrpinfo(1) command can also be useful with this pmap
option. It displays the lgroup hierarchy, contents, and
characteristics which gives more information about the lgroups that
the memory is distributed across and their relationship to each other
and any other lgroups of interest.

In addition, the thread and memory placement can be changed by using
plgrp(1), pmadvise(1), or madv.so.1(1).


Process anon/locked mapping details

/usr/bin/pmap -x [ -aslF ] [-A address_range] [ pid | core ] ...


The -x option displays additional information per mapping. The size
of each mapping, the amount of resident physical memory (RSS), the
amount of anonymous memory, and the amount of memory locked is shown
with this option. This does not include anonymous memory taken by
kernel address space due to this process.


Swap Reservations

/usr/bin/pmap -S [ -alF ] [-A address_range] [ pid | core ] ...


The -S option displays swap reservation information per mapping.


Caution should be exercised when using the -F flag. Imposing two
controlling processes on one victim process can lead to chaos. Safety is
assured only if the primary controlling process, typically a debugger,
has stopped the victim process and the primary controlling process is
doing nothing at the moment of application of the proc tool in question.

DISPLAY FORMATS


One line of output is printed for each mapping within the process, unless
the --s or --L option is specified. With -s option, one line is printed
for a contiguous mapping of each hardware translation page size. With -L
option one line is printed for a contiguous mapping belonging to the same
lgroup. With both -L and -s options, one line is printed for a contiguous
mapping of each hardware translation page size belonging to the same
lgroup. The column headings are shown in parentheses below.

Virtual Address (Address)
The first column of output represents the starting virtual address of
each mapping. Virtual addresses are displayed in ascending order.


Virtual Mapping Size (Kbytes)
The virtual size in kilobytes of each mapping.


Resident Physical Memory (RSS)
The amount of physical memory in kilobytes that is resident for each
mapping, including that which is shared with other address spaces.


Anonymous Memory (Anon)
The number of pages, counted by using the system page size, of
anonymous memory associated with the specified mapping. Anonymous
memory shared with other address spaces is not included, unless the
-a option is specified.

Anonymous memory is reported for the process heap, stack, for 'copy
on write' pages with mappings mapped with MAP_PRIVATE (see mmap(2)).


Locked (Locked)
The number of pages locked within the mapping. Typical examples are
memory locked with mlock() and System V shared memory created with
SHM_SHARE_MMU.


Permissions/Flags (Mode)
The virtual memory permissions are shown for each mapping. Valid
permissions are:

r:
The mapping can be read by the process.


w:
The mapping can be written by the process.


x:
Instructions that reside within the mapping can be executed by
the process.

Flags showing additional information for each mapping can be
displayed:

s:
The mapping is shared such that changes made in the observed
address space are committed to the mapped file, and are visible
from all other processes sharing the mapping.


R:
Swap space is not reserved for this mapping. Mappings created
with MAP_NORESERVE and System V ISM shared memory mappings do
not reserve swap space.


*:
The data for the mapping is not present in the core file (only
applicable when applied to a core file). See coreadm(1M) for
information on configuring core file content.


Lgroup (Lgrp)
The lgroup containing the physical memory that backs the specified
mapping.


Mapping Name (Mapped File)
A descriptive name for each mapping. The following major types of
names are displayed for mappings:

o A mapped file: For mappings between a process and a file,
the pmap command attempts to resolve the file name for
each mapping. If the file name cannot be resolved, pmap
displays the major and minor number of the device
containing the file, and the file system inode number of
the file.

o Anonymous memory: Memory not relating to any named object
or file within the file system is reported as [ anon ].

The pmap command displays common names for certain known
anonymous memory mappings:


[ heap ]
The mapping is the process heap.


[ stack ]
The mapping is the main stack.


[ stack tid=n ]
The mapping is the stack for thread
n.


[ altstack tid=n ]
The mapping is used as the alternate
signal stack for thread n.


If the common name for the mapping is unknown, pmap displays [
anon ] as the mapping name.

o System V Shared Memory: Mappings created using System V
shared memory system calls are reported with the names
shown below:


shmid=n:
The mapping is a System V shared memory
mapping. The shared memory identifier
that the mapping was created with is
reported.


ism shmid=n:
The mapping is an "Intimate Shared
Memory" variant of System V shared
memory. ISM mappings are created with
the SHM_SHARE_MMU flag set, in accordance
with shmat(2) (see shmop(2)).


dism shmid=n:
The mapping is a pageable variant of ISM.
Pageable ISM is created with the
SHM_PAGEABLE flag set in accordance with
shmat(2) (see shmop(2)).


o Other: Mappings of other objects, including devices such
as frame buffers. No mapping name is shown for other
mapped objects.


Page Size (Pgsz)
The page size in kilobytes that is used for hardware address
translation for this mapping. See memcntl(2) for further information.


Swap Space (Swap)
The amount of swap space in kilobytes that is reserved for this
mapping. That is, swap space that is deducted from the total
available pool of reservable swap space that is displayed with the
command swap -s. See swap(1M).


EXAMPLES


Example 1: Displaying Process Mappings




By default, pmap prints one line for each mapping within the address
space of the target process. The following example displays the address
space of a typical bourne shell:


example$ pmap 102905
102905: sh
00010000 192K r-x-- /usr/bin/ksh
00040000 8K rwx-- /usr/bin/ksh
00042000 40K rwx-- [ heap ]
FF180000 664K r-x-- /usr/lib/libc.so.1
FF236000 24K rwx-- /usr/lib/libc.so.1
FF23C000 8K rwx-- /usr/lib/libc.so.1
FF250000 8K rwx-- [ anon ]
FF260000 16K r-x-- /usr/lib/en_US.ISO8859-1.so.2
FF272000 16K rwx-- /usr/lib/en_US.ISO8859-1.so.2
FF280000 560K r-x-- /usr/lib/libnsl.so.1
FF31C000 32K rwx-- /usr/lib/libnsl.so.1
FF324000 32K rwx-- /usr/lib/libnsl.so.1
FF340000 16K r-x-- /usr/lib/libc_psr.so.1
FF350000 16K r-x-- /usr/lib/libmp.so.2
FF364000 8K rwx-- /usr/lib/libmp.so.2
FF380000 40K r-x-- /usr/lib/libsocket.so.1
FF39A000 8K rwx-- /usr/lib/libsocket.so.1
FF3A0000 8K r-x-- /usr/lib/libdl.so.1
FF3B0000 8K rwx-- [ anon ]
FF3C0000 152K r-x-- /usr/lib/ld.so.1
FF3F6000 8K rwx-- /usr/lib/ld.so.1
FFBFC000 16K rw--- [ stack ]
total 1880K


Example 2: Displaying Memory Allocation and Mapping Types




The -x option can be used to provide information about the memory
allocation and mapping types per mapping. The amount of resident, non-
shared anonymous, and locked memory is shown for each mapping:


example$ pmap -x 102908
102908: sh
Address Kbytes RSS Anon Locked Mode Mapped File
00010000 88 88 - - r-x-- sh
00036000 8 8 8 - rwx-- sh
00038000 16 16 16 - rwx-- [ heap ]
FF260000 16 16 - - r-x-- en_US.ISO8859-1.so.2
FF272000 16 16 - - rwx-- en_US.ISO8859-1.so.2
FF280000 664 624 - - r-x-- libc.so.1
FF336000 32 32 8 - rwx-- libc.so.1
FF360000 16 16 - - r-x-- libc_psr.so.1
FF380000 24 24 - - r-x-- libgen.so.1
FF396000 8 8 - - rwx-- libgen.so.1
FF3A0000 8 8 - - r-x-- libdl.so.1
FF3B0000 8 8 8 - rwx-- [ anon ]
FF3C0000 152 152 - - r-x-- ld.so.1
FF3F6000 8 8 8 - rwx-- ld.so.1
FFBFE000 8 8 8 - rw--- [ stack ]
-------- ----- ----- ----- ------
total Kb 1072 1032 56 -


The amount of incremental memory used by each additional instance of a
process can be estimated by using the resident and anonymous memory
counts of each mapping.


In the above example, the bourne shell has a resident memory size of
1032Kbytes. However, a large amount of the physical memory used by the
shell is shared with other instances of shell. Another identical instance
of the shell shares physical memory with the other shell where possible,
and allocate anonymous memory for any non-shared portion. In the above
example, each additional bourne shell uses approximately 56Kbytes of
additional physical memory.


A more complex example shows the output format for a process containing
different mapping types. In this example, the mappings are as follows:


0001000: Executable text, mapped from 'maps' program

0002000: Executable data, mapped from 'maps' program

0002200: Program heap


0300000: A mapped file, mapped MAP_SHARED
0400000: A mapped file, mapped MAP_PRIVATE

0500000: A mapped file, mapped MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_NORESERVE

0600000: Anonymous memory, created by mapping /dev/zero

0700000: Anonymous memory, created by mapping /dev/zero
with MAP_NORESERVE

0800000: A DISM shared memory mapping, created with SHM_PAGEABLE
with 8MB locked via mlock(2)

0900000: A DISM shared memory mapping, created with SHM_PAGEABLE,
with 4MB of its pages touched.

0A00000: A DISM shared memory mapping, created with SHM_PAGEABLE,
with none of its pages touched.

0B00000: An ISM shared memory mapping, created with SHM_SHARE_MMU


example$ pmap -x 15492
15492: ./maps
Address Kbytes RSS Anon Locked Mode Mapped File
00010000 8 8 - - r-x-- maps
00020000 8 8 8 - rwx-- maps
00022000 20344 16248 16248 - rwx-- [ heap ]
03000000 1024 1024 - - rw-s- dev:0,2 ino:4628487
04000000 1024 1024 512 - rw--- dev:0,2 ino:4628487
05000000 1024 1024 512 - rw--R dev:0,2 ino:4628487
06000000 1024 1024 1024 - rw--- [ anon ]
07000000 512 512 512 - rw--R [ anon ]
08000000 8192 8192 - 8192 rwxs- [ dism shmid=0x5]
09000000 8192 4096 - - rwxs- [ dism shmid=0x4]
0A000000 8192 8192 - 8192 rwxsR [ ism shmid=0x2 ]
0B000000 8192 8192 - 8192 rwxsR [ ism shmid=0x3 ]
FF280000 680 672 - - r-x-- libc.so.1
FF33A000 32 32 32 - rwx-- libc.so.1
FF390000 8 8 - - r-x-- libc_psr.so.1
FF3A0000 8 8 - - r-x-- libdl.so.1
FF3B0000 8 8 8 - rwx-- [ anon ]
FF3C0000 152 152 - - r-x-- ld.so.1
FF3F6000 8 8 8 - rwx-- ld.so.1
FFBFA000 24 24 24 - rwx-- [ stack ]
-------- ------- ------- ------- -------
total Kb 50464 42264 18888 16384


Example 3: Displaying Page Size Information




The -s option can be used to display the hardware translation page sizes
for each portion of the address space. (See memcntl(2) for futher
information on Solaris multiple page size support).


In the example below, we can see that the majority of the mappings are
using an 8K-Byte page size, while the heap is using a 4M-Byte page size.


Notice that non-contiguous regions of resident pages of the same page
size are reported as separate mappings. In the example below, the libc.so
library is reported as separate mappings, since only some of the libc.so
text is resident:


example$ pmap -xs 15492
15492: ./maps
Address Kbytes RSS Anon Locked Pgsz Mode Mapped File
00010000 8 8 - - 8K r-x-- maps
00020000 8 8 8 - 8K rwx-- maps
00022000 3960 3960 3960 - 8K rwx-- [ heap ]
00400000 8192 8192 8192 - 4M rwx-- [ heap ]
00C00000 4096 - - - - rwx-- [ heap ]
01000000 4096 4096 4096 - 4M rwx-- [ heap ]
03000000 1024 1024 - - 8K rw-s- dev:0,2 ino:4628487
04000000 512 512 512 - 8K rw--- dev:0,2 ino:4628487
04080000 512 512 - - - rw--- dev:0,2 ino:4628487
05000000 512 512 512 - 8K rw--R dev:0,2 ino:4628487
05080000 512 512 - - - rw--R dev:0,2 ino:4628487
06000000 1024 1024 1024 - 8K rw--- [ anon ]
07000000 512 512 512 - 8K rw--R [ anon ]
08000000 8192 8192 - 8192 - rwxs- [ dism shmid=0x5 ]
09000000 4096 4096 - - 8K rwxs- [ dism shmid=0x4 ]
0A000000 4096 - - - - rwxs- [ dism shmid=0x2 ]
0B000000 8192 8192 - 8192 4M rwxsR [ ism shmid=0x3 ]
FF280000 136 136 - - 8K r-x-- libc.so.1
FF2A2000 120 120 - - - r-x-- libc.so.1
FF2C0000 128 128 - - 8K r-x-- libc.so.1
FF2E0000 200 200 - - - r-x-- libc.so.1
FF312000 48 48 - - 8K r-x-- libc.so.1
FF31E000 48 40 - - - r-x-- libc.so.1
FF33A000 32 32 32 - 8K rwx-- libc.so.1
FF390000 8 8 - - 8K r-x-- libc_psr.so.1
FF3A0000 8 8 - - 8K r-x-- libdl.so.1
FF3B0000 8 8 8 - 8K rwx-- [ anon ]
FF3C0000 152 152 - - 8K r-x-- ld.so.1
FF3F6000 8 8 8 - 8K rwx-- ld.so.1
FFBFA000 24 24 24 - 8K rwx-- [ stack ]
-------- ------- ------- ------- -------
total Kb 50464 42264 18888 16384


Example 4: Displaying Swap Reservations




The -S option can be used to describe the swap reservations for a
process. The amount of swap space reserved is displayed for each mapping
within the process. Swap reservations are reported as zero for shared
mappings, since they are accounted for only once system wide.


example$ pmap -S 15492
15492: ./maps
Address Kbytes Swap Mode Mapped File
00010000 8 - r-x-- maps
00020000 8 8 rwx-- maps
00022000 20344 20344 rwx-- [ heap ]
03000000 1024 - rw-s- dev:0,2 ino:4628487
04000000 1024 1024 rw--- dev:0,2 ino:4628487
05000000 1024 512 rw--R dev:0,2 ino:4628487
06000000 1024 1024 rw--- [ anon ]
07000000 512 512 rw--R [ anon ]
08000000 8192 - rwxs- [ dism shmid=0x5]
09000000 8192 - rwxs- [ dism shmid=0x4]
0A000000 8192 - rwxs- [ dism shmid=0x2]
0B000000 8192 - rwxsR [ ism shmid=0x3]
FF280000 680 - r-x-- libc.so.1
FF33A000 32 32 rwx-- libc.so.1
FF390000 8 - r-x-- libc_psr.so.1
FF3A0000 8 - r-x-- libdl.so.1
FF3B0000 8 8 rwx-- [ anon ]
FF3C0000 152 - r-x-- ld.so.1
FF3F6000 8 8 rwx-- ld.so.1
FFBFA000 24 24 rwx-- [ stack ]
-------- ------- -------
total Kb 50464 23496


The swap reservation information can be used to estimate the amount of
virtual swap used by each additional process. Each process consumes
virtual swap from a global virtual swap pool. Global swap reservations
are reported by the 'avail' field of the swap(1M) command.


Example 5: Labeling Stacks in a Multi-threaded Process



example$ pmap 121969
121969: ./stacks
00010000 8K r-x-- /tmp/stacks
00020000 8K rwx-- /tmp/stacks
FE8FA000 8K rwx-R [ stack tid=11 ]
FE9FA000 8K rwx-R [ stack tid=10 ]
FEAFA000 8K rwx-R [ stack tid=9 ]
FEBFA000 8K rwx-R [ stack tid=8 ]
FECFA000 8K rwx-R [ stack tid=7 ]
FEDFA000 8K rwx-R [ stack tid=6 ]
FEEFA000 8K rwx-R [ stack tid=5 ]
FEFFA000 8K rwx-R [ stack tid=4 ]
FF0FA000 8K rwx-R [ stack tid=3 ]
FF1FA000 8K rwx-R [ stack tid=2 ]
FF200000 64K rw--- [ altstack tid=8 ]
FF220000 64K rw--- [ altstack tid=4 ]
FF240000 112K rw--- [ anon ]
FF260000 16K rw--- [ anon ]
FF270000 16K r-x-- /usr/platform/sun4u/lib/libc_psr.so.1
FF280000 672K r-x-- /usr/lib/libc.so.1
FF338000 24K rwx-- /usr/lib/libc.so.1
FF33E000 8K rwx-- /usr/lib/libc.so.1
FF35A000 8K rwxs- [ anon ]
FF360000 104K r-x-- /usr/lib/libthread.so.1
FF38A000 8K rwx-- /usr/lib/libthread.so.1
FF38C000 8K rwx-- /usr/lib/libthread.so.1
FF3A0000 8K r-x-- /usr/lib/libdl.so.1
FF3B0000 8K rwx-- [ anon ]
FF3C0000 152K r-x-- /usr/lib/ld.so.1
FF3F6000 8K rwx-- /usr/lib/ld.so.1
FFBFA000 24K rwx-- [ stack ]
total 1400K


Example 6: Displaying lgroup Memory Allocation




The following example displays lgroup memory allocation by mapping:


example$ pmap -L `pgrep nscd`
100095: /usr/sbin/nscd
00010000 8K r-x-- 2 /usr/sbin/nscd
00012000 48K r-x-- 1 /usr/sbin/nscd
0002E000 8K rwx-- 2 /usr/sbin/nscd
00030000 16K rwx-- 2 [ heap ]
00034000 8K rwx-- 1 [ heap ]
.
.
.
FD80A000 24K rwx-- 2 [ anon ]
FD820000 8K r-x-- 2 /lib/libmd5.so.1
FD840000 16K r-x-- 1 /lib/libmp.so.2
FD860000 8K r-x-- 2 /usr/lib/straddr.so.2
FD872000 8K rwx-- 1 /usr/lib/straddr.so.2
FD97A000 8K rw--R 1 [ stack tid=24 ]
FD990000 8K r-x-- 2 /lib/nss_nis.so.1
FD992000 16K r-x-- 1 /lib/nss_nis.so.1
FD9A6000 8K rwx-- 1 /lib/nss_nis.so.1
FD9C0000 8K rwx-- 2 [ anon ]
FD9D0000 8K r-x-- 2 /lib/nss_files.so.1
FD9D2000 16K r-x-- 1 /lib/nss_files.so.1
FD9E6000 8K rwx-- 2 /lib/nss_files.so.1
FDAFA000 8K rw--R 2 [ stack tid=23 ]
FDBFA000 8K rw--R 1 [ stack tid=22 ]
FDCFA000 8K rw--R 1 [ stack tid=21 ]
FDDFA000 8K rw--R 1 [ stack tid=20 ]
.
.
.
FEFFA000 8K rw--R 1 [ stack tid=2 ]
FF000000 8K rwx-- 2 [ anon ]
FF004000 16K rwx-- 1 [ anon ]
FF00A000 16K rwx-- 1 [ anon ]
.
.
.
FF3EE000 8K rwx-- 2 /lib/ld.so.1
FFBFE000 8K rw--- 2 [ stack ]
total 2968K


EXIT STATUS


The following exit values are returned:

0
Successful operation.


non-zero
An error has occurred.


FILES


/proc/*
process files


/usr/proc/lib/*
proc tools supporting files


ATTRIBUTES


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


+--------------------+-----------------+
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
+--------------------+-----------------+
|Interface Stability | See below. |
+--------------------+-----------------+


The command syntax is Evolving. The -L option and the output formats are
Unstable.

SEE ALSO


ldd(1), lgrpinfo(1), madv.so.1(1), mdb(1), plgrp(1), pmadvise(1),
proc(1), ps(1), coreadm(1M), prstat(1M), swap(1M), mmap(2), memcntl(2),
meminfo(2), shmop(2), dlopen(3C), proc(4), attributes(5)


September 9, 2006 PMAP(1)